Factores asociados a la liberación de gonadotrofinas y ovulación después de la administración exógena de GnRH en el Bos Taurus

  • Marcos Germán Colazo Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
  • Reuben John Mapletoft Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
Palabras clave: Estrógeno, Progesterona, Liberación de LH, Dinámica folicular, Inseminación artificial

Resumen

La hormona liberadora de gonadotropina (GnRH) es un decapéptido, sintetizado por las neuronas GnRH en el hipotálamo, que estimula la síntesis y secreción de gonadotrofinas (hormonas folículo estimulante, FSH y luteinizante, LH) de la hipófisis anterior o adenohipofisis. Agonistas de GnRH con una estructura idéntica o similar a la natural han estado disponible comercialmente desde la década del 70 y han sido utilizadas en un principio para el tratamiento de quistes foliculares y el mejoramiento de la fertilidad en el ganado vacuno (1). La  ovulación de folículos ováricos después de la administración de GnRH fue reportada por primera vez por Schams et al. (2) y Britt et al. (3), pero no fue hasta la década del 90 cuando la GnRH se comenzó a utilizar para controlar la dinámica folicular durante el ciclo estral del bovino. Ahora sabemos que una nueva onda folicular emerge dentro de los 2 días después de la ovulación del folículo dominante presente en el momento del tratamiento con GnRH (4,5). Este hallazgo facilitó el desarrollo de protocolos de sincronización a base de GnRH en combinación con prostaglandinas (PGF) que permiten la inseminación artificial a tiempo fijo (IATF), sin necesidad de realizar detección de celo. Estos protocolos a base de GnRH y PGF son parte del manejo reproductivo bovino, sobre todo del ganado lechero, en muchos rodeos comerciales del mundo. Existen numerosos protocolos a base de GnRH y PGF disponibles para la sincronización del estro y la ovulación en el ganado, varios de esos protocolos se han explicado y discutido en detalle en otros artículos (6,7). El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los factores asociados a la liberación de LH y respuesta ovulatoria posterior a la administración de GnRH, dar a conocer información relevante sobre el efecto de las hormonas esteroideas en la respuesta a la GnRH y, por último, brevemente postular estrategias que podrían mejorar la eficacia de los protocolos basados en la aplicación de GnRH y PGF

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Biografía del autor/a

Marcos Germán Colazo, Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Médico Veterinario con un MSc y un PhD de Universidad de Saskatchewan. Investigador Senior

Reuben John Mapletoft, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada

Médico Veterinario con un PhD de la Universidad de Wisconsin. Profesor emérito de la Universidad de Saskatchewan. Consultor Privado

Citas

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imagen ilustrativa
Publicado
2022-09-05
Cómo citar
Colazo, M. G., & Mapletoft, R. J. (2022). Factores asociados a la liberación de gonadotrofinas y ovulación después de la administración exógena de GnRH en el Bos Taurus. Ciencia Veterinaria, 24(2), 221- 240. https://doi.org/10.19137/cienvet202224208
Sección
Artículos de revisión